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ANSWER

Reading Test 016 Answer and Explanations

Posted: July 21, 2019 at 12:17 pm   /   by   /   comments (0)

Reading Passage: ODONATA

1. (C) Paragraph 1: “Dragonflies and damselflies get their name from the powerful serrated jaws they use to tear apart their prey.”

2. (B) Paragraph 2: “Dragonflies hold their wings out to the side while damselflies fold their wings back.”

3. (B) Paragraph 2: “Damselflies’ eyes are smaller, and there is a space between them.”

4. (A) Paragraph 2: “Dragonflies are larger and stronger animals than damselflies and fly longer distances. Thus, they can be found in woods and fields away from the water.”

5. (C) Paragraph 3: “The largest odonata living today are the Hawaiian endemic dragonfly and the Central American damselfly, each of these species having a wingspan of 19 centimeters.”

6. (A) Paragraph 3: “The largest dragonfly fossil ever found belongs to the now-extinct meganeura monyi, which lived 300 million years ago and had a wingspan of 75 centimeters.”

7. (E) Paragraph 4: “Dragonflies and damselflies both lay their eggs on or just below the surface of the water in a pond or stream.”

8. (F) Paragraph 4: “The babies emerge from the eggs in the form of nymphs.”

9. (H) Paragraph 4: “Depending on the species, they live this way for several months or even several years.”

10. (B) Paragraph 4: “They have a special lip that they can extend far forward in order to grab their prey when it comes close.”

11. (I) Paragraph 4: “The adults do not live for more than four months, and many species live as adults for only a few weeks.”

12. (D) Paragraph 5: “They have two sets of wings that can move independently of each other. This gives them great maneuverability in the air . . . . They can hover, make sharp turns, and fly backward.”

13. (A) Paragraph 5: “they catch their prey while flying.”

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PASSAGE 2: History of Fire Fighting and Prevention

14. fuel. Paragraph 1: “Watchmen also learned to create firebreaks with long hooked poles and ropes in order to pull down structures that provided fuel for a fire.”

15. p u t out. Paragraph 1: “In 1066, in order to reduce the risk of fire in thatched-roof houses, King William the Conqueror made a ruling:Citizens had to extinguish their cooking fires at night.”

16. hot and dry. Paragraph 2: “However, the summer of 1666 had been uncharacteristically hot and dry

17. rebuild the city. Paragraph 2: “the mayor grew concerned over the cost it would involve to rebuild the city and ordered that the surrounding structures be left intact.”

18. stone and brick. Paragraph 3: “most of London was rebuilt using stone and brick, materials that were far less flammable than wood and straw.”

19. fires. Paragraph 3: “Because of the long history of fires in London, those who could afford to build new homes and businesses began to seek insurance for their properties.”

20. extinguish fires. Paragraph 3: “As insurance became a profitable business, companies soon realized the monetary benefits of hiring men to extinguish fires.”

21. (A) Paragraph 4: “The first fire engines were simple tubs on wheels that were pulled to the location of the fire . . . .” Choice (B) is incorrect because hand pumps were added “eventually,” that is, later. Choice (C) is incorrect because water was “supplied by a bucket brigade.”

22. (C) Paragraph 5: “In 1865, the government became involved, …. estab­lishing London’s Metropolitan Fire Brigade. Choice (A) is mentioned in the same paragraph but not as something that occurred in 1865. Choice (B) is mentioned as something that happened in the eighteenth century or earlier.

23. (B) Paragraph 5: “Though the firemen were well paid, they were constantly on duty and thus obliged to call their fire station home . . . .” Choice (A) is incorrect because the paragraph mentions that firemen were well paid. Choice (C) is incorrect because the paragraph mentions firemen’s families.

24. No. Paragraph 6: “Leather hoses with couplings that joined the lengths together were hand-sewn in the Netherlands

25. Yes. Paragraph 6 explains that steam engine fire trucks were used from about the 1850s until the early 1900s, when the trucks became motorized.

26. Not Given. World War I is mentioned, but its particular effect on London is not.

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PASSAGE 3: The Luddites
27. (B) Paragraph 1: “Weavers’ work was moved from individual homes to fac­tories; individuals could not afford to buy the new machines for themselves.”
28. (H) Paragraph 1: “The new machines were not difficult to run. They could be operated by unskilled workers
29. (D) Paragraph 2: “If these demands were not met, the group retaliated by smashing the factory machines.”
30. (A) Paragraph 4: “Luddite activity spread …. The government sent thousands of troops into areas affected by the riots.”
31. (E) Paragraph 4: “the Frame-Breaking Act was passed, making the destruction of factory equipment a crime punishable by death.” Paragraphs 4 and 5 mention several incidents where rioters were impris­oned or executed.
32. (I) Paragraph 5: “In 1816, a bad harvest and economic downturn led to a small revival of rioting.”
33. True. Opening sentence: “The term Luddite is used to refer to a person who is opposed to new technology.”

34. True. Paragraph 1: “These weavers made lace and stockings by hand …. In the 1800s, automated power looms and stocking frames were introduced
35. True. Paragraph 4: “In the spring of that year, several factory owners were killed during Luddite riots, and a number of textile workers died as well.”
36. Not Given. The article describes Luddite activity in England but does not mention whether it occurred in other countries.
37. True. Paragraph 3 discusses possible explanations of who Ned Ludd was and implies that none of them is accepted as fact.
38. False. Paragraph 5: “In 1816, a bad harvest and economic downturn led to a small revival of rioting.”
39. False. According to Paragraphs 2 and 5, most Luddite activity occurred in the years 1811 and 1812.
40. Not Given. Paragraph 6 describes Neo-Luddites as people concerned about technological advances but does not give any specifics about their activities.