Word classes (Parts of Speech)
Verb: climb, eat, welcome, be
Noun: aircraft, country, lady, hour
Adjective: good, British, cold, quick
Adverb: quickly, always, approximately
Preposition: to, of, at, on
Determiner: the, his, some, forty-five
Pronoun: we, you, them, myself
Conjunction: and, but, so
NOTE There is also a small class of words called ‘interjections’. They include oh, ah and mhm.
Verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs are ‘vocabulary words‘. Learning vocabulary means learning verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs.
Prepositions, determiners, pronouns and conjunctions belong to much smaller classes. These words are sometimes called ‘grammatical words‘.
Most word classes can be divided into sub-classes.
For example: Verb Ordinary verb: go, like, think, apply
Auxiliary verb: is, had, can, must
Adverb Adverb of manner: suddenly, quickly
Adverb of frequency: always, often
Adverb of place: there, nearby
Linking adverb: too, also etc
Determiner Article: a, the Possessive: my, his
Demonstrative: this, that
Quantifier: all, three
Phrases: There are five kinds of phrase.
1 Verb phrase: come, had thought, was left, will be climbing A verb phrase has an ordinary verb (come, thought, left, climbing) and may also have an auxiliary (had, was, will).
2 Noun phrase: a good flight, his crew, we A noun phrase has a noun (flight), which usually has a determiner (a) and/or adjective (good) in front of it. A noun phrase can also be a pronoun (we).
3 Adjective phrase: pleasant, very late An adjective phrase has an adjective, sometimes with an adverb of degree (very).
4 Adverb phrase: quickly, almost certainly An adverb phrase has an adverb, sometimes with an adverb of degree (almost).
5 Prepositional phrase: after lunch, on the aircraft. A prepositional phrase is a preposition + noun phrase.