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Eng Grammar

Word classes (Parts of Speech)

Posted: March 3, 2019 at 11:08 am   /   by   /   comments (0)

Verb: climb, eat, welcome, be

Noun: aircraft, country, lady, hour

Adjective: good, British, cold, quick

Adverb: quickly, always, approximately

Preposition: to, of, at, on

Determiner: the, his, some, forty-five

Pronoun: we, you, them, myself

Conjunction: and, but, so

NOTE There is also a small class of words called ‘interjections’. They include oh, ah and mhm.

Verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs are ‘vocabulary words‘. Learning vocabulary means learning verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs.

Prepositions, determiners, pronouns and conjunctions belong to much smaller classes. These words are sometimes called ‘grammatical words‘.

Most word classes can be divided into sub-classes.

For example: Verb Ordinary verb: go, like, think, apply

Auxiliary verb: is, had, can, must

Adverb Adverb of manner: suddenly, quickly

Adverb of frequency: always, often

Adverb of place: there, nearby

Linking adverb: too, also etc

Determiner Article: a, the Possessive: my, his

Demonstrative: this, that

Quantifier: all, three

Phrases: There are five kinds of phrase.

1 Verb phrase: come, had thought, was left, will be climbing A verb phrase has an ordinary verb (come, thought, left, climbing) and may also have an auxiliary (had, was, will).

2 Noun phrase: a good flight, his crew, we A noun phrase has a noun (flight), which usually has a determiner (a) and/or adjective (good) in front of it. A noun phrase can also be a pronoun (we).

3 Adjective phrase: pleasant, very late An adjective phrase has an adjective, sometimes with an adverb of degree (very).

4 Adverb phrase: quickly, almost certainly An adverb phrase has an adverb, sometimes with an adverb of degree (almost).

5 Prepositional phrase: after lunch, on the aircraft. A prepositional phrase is a preposition + noun phrase.

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