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Grammar

Fluency and Cohesion

Posted: June 23, 2019 at 10:07 am   /   by   /   comments (0)

Connectives are words or phrases that connect and relate sentences and paragraphs. They help to build the logical flow of ideas as they signal the relationship between sentences and paragraphs. You can see some of the more commonly used connectives in the table below.

These words and expressions help to develop, relate, connect and even moveideas.

The table below lists a few of the most frequently used connectives.

FUNCTIONCONNECTIVES
additionand, also, besides, furthermore, too, moreover, then, equally important, another
comparisonlike, in the same manner (way), as so, similarly
contrastbut, in contrast, conversely, however, still, nevertheless, yet, on the other hand, on the contrary, or, in spite of this, actually, in fact
order or sequencefirst, second, (etc.), finally, next, then, to begin with, after, before, as soon as, in the end, gradually
resultsas a result, so, accordingly, consequently, thus, since, therefore, for this reason, because of this
purposefor this purpose, with this in mind, for this reason
to signal an example or emphasizefor example, to illustrate, for instance, to be specific, such as, especially
to summarize or concludein summary, to sum up, to repeat, briefly, in short, finally, on the whole, therefore, as I have said, in conclusion, as you can see


Discourse markers
 are words or phrases that we use to manage what we say or write or to express attitude. They are also quite helpful in building a well-organised answer and orienting your listener as you speak.

FUNCTIONDiscourse markers
To preface what you really thinkActually, I have to say
To confess that something is trueI must admit
To give yourself time to thinkWell
To start, end or change topicRight, so, anyway
To say something in another wayWhat I mean is, in other words
To talk about knowledge we share with listenerYou know, you see
To introduce personal opinionMy point is, what I’m getting at is, I mean, I guess

 

QS: Why do people want to learn a foreign language?

Well [to give yourself time to think], that’s because [reason] it’s very useful in modern society. I guess [personal opinion], language learning stopped being a hobby and turned into a trend. That [reference] is due to [reason] many real advantages in employment, relationships and health.

First [order], speaking more than one language can open up a great number of employment opportunities for job seekers, especially [emphasis] if [condition] that language is widely used in business. So, if [condition] you speak a language like English or Mandarin, you will be able to work for not only local but [contrast] global businesses too [add ideas], with the additional advantage of a very decent salary.

Second [order], if [condition]you speak two or more languages, this [reference] will help you to extend your connections worldwide. So [result] you will be able to build lasting friendships with foreign co-workers or local people when [time] you travel around the world.

And finally [order], your brain will benefit a lot from such a [example] learning activity as discovering a new language. Research showed that studying another language helps prevent brain illness and keeps you more mentally fit as well as[add ideas] improves your memory. In short, [conclude] what I’m getting at is that [personal opinion] learning a foreign language is more than beneficial!

 

As you can see, this answer indeed shows a flexible use of connectives and discourse markers. They are not repeated (except several uses of if, which is justified) and all used appropriately.

All the ideas are organised well and the connections between them are clear and logical. Thus, using appropriate connectives will make your exam answer ordered and intelligible, and will show that you are flexible when using them and can use a certain range to express yourself in an orderly and logical manner.

 

Well , that’s because it’s very useful in modern society. I guess, language learning stopped being a hobby and turned into a trend. That is due to many real advantages in employment, relationships and health.

First , speaking more than one language can open up a great number of employment opportunities for job seekers, especially if that language is widely used in business. So, if you speak a language like English or Mandarin, you will be able to work for not only local but global businesses too, with the additional advantage of a very decent salary.

Second, if you speak two or more languages, this will help you to extend your connections worldwide. So you will be able to build lasting friendships with foreign co-workers or local people when you travel around the world.

And finally, your brain will benefit a lot from such a learning activity asdiscovering a new language. Research showed that studying another language helps prevent brain illness and keeps you more mentally fit as well as improves your memory. In short, what I’m getting at is that learning a foreign language is more than beneficial!

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